Unit 1

Table of contents:

  1. The vowels Аа, Оо, Ээ, Уу, ы
  2. The consonants Пп, Бб, Кк, Гг, Фф, Вв, Мм
  3. The consonants Нн, Лл, Тт, Дд
  4. The consonants Сс, Зз
  5. The training

1. The vowels Аа, Оо, Ээ, Уу, ы

 

Аа [а] ≈ «a» in «father»

Оо [о] ≈ «o» in «box» / «or» in «more»

Ээ [э] ≈ «e» in «bed»

Уу [у] ≈ «oo» in «school» / «u» in «put»

Ыы [ы] — doesn’t exist in English!

Characteristics of the pronunciation

Differently from English the lips aren’t draught, the tongue isn’t tense and not drawn back, but lies unmoved on the bottom of the oral cavity.

Pronouncing the Russian [о] the lips are actively involved: they are round out strongly and lightly drawn forward.

Pronounced more openly, the lips aren’t draught.

The lips are round out and strongly drawn forward (more strongly than by the [о], but not tense).

The tongue is located at the same place as by the pronunciation of [u:], but the lips are draught like by the pronunciation of [i:]. For pronouncing [ы], pronounce [u:] at first and then change the position of the lips (extend them) and pronounce the Russian [ы].

а – о – у – э
у – ы
а – э – о – у – ы
ау – уа – оо – оу – эу – уы – ыу

In Russian diphthongs don’t exist!

 

2. The consonants Пп, Бб, Кк, Гг, Фф, Вв, Мм

Пп [п] = [p]

Бб [б] = [b]

Фф [ф] = [f]

Вв [в] = [v]

Мм [м] = [m]

Кк [к] = [k]

Гг [г] = [g]

The vowel Ы is never written
after the consonants К and Г.

For the mechanical changeover of the articulation from English to Russian. Press the tongue close to the lower teeth (the tip of the tongue needs to be incurved down to the palate). Now read, not changing the position of the tongue.

ма – мэ – мо – му – мы
па – пэ – по – пу – пы
ба – бэ – бо – бу – бы
фа – фэ – фо – фу – фы
ва – вэ – во – ву – вы
ка – кэ – ко – ку
га – гэ – го – гу

 

3. The consonants Нн, Лл, Тт, Дд

Нн [н] ≈ [n]

Лл [л] ≈ [l]

Тт [т] ≈ [t]

Дд [д] ≈ [d]

Characteristics of the pronunciation

In Russian these sounds are pronounced by touching the upper teeth with the tip of the tongue, in English – the alveola (the alveolar ridges behind the upper teeth).

 

Listen, repeat, and read.
For the convenience of reading skills development words are split into syllables.

дом
кот
банк
план
лук
мак
лак
клык
дым
бык
клан
фунт
фон
волк
флот
клон
гном

ма-ма
па-па
лу-на
но-та
ут-ка
тык-ва
бал-кон
бук-ва
лам-па
ду-эт
кло-ун
э-тап
па-ук
бан-ка
му-ка
ва-гон
ван-на

ба-нан
ба-тон
фа-гот
та-лант
ту-ман
фут-бол
фут-бол-ка
а-ку-ла
э-та-лон
бу-тыл-ка
бу-ма-га
комната
фа-нат
ку-лак
у-лыб-ка
на-у-ка
вул-кан

 

4. The consonants Сс, Зз


Сс [с] ≈ [s]

Зз [з] ≈ [z]

Characteristics of the pronunciation

Pronouncing the English sounds [s], [z] the tip of the tongue is lift up to the alveoli, but doesn’t touch them. Pronouncing the Russian consonants [с], [з] the tongue is located at the bottom of lower teeth.

 

 

Listen, repeat, and read.
For the convenience of reading skills development words are split into syllables.

зонт
знак
звук
звон
мозг
а-зот
зо-на
зу-бы
фа-за
ва-за
ба-за

гла-за
за-бор
за-вод
за-мок
за-пад
за-кон
га-зон
фа-зан
за-кат
му-зы-ка
му-зы-кант

сок
сын
суп
стол
стул
тост
вкус
стук
бокс
сон
слон

ста-кан
от-пуск
у-сы
со-ус
сум-ка
мас-ка
ав-то-бус
ка-пус-та
фо-кус
са-лат
гло-бус

 

 Practice

Exercise 1.  Listen, repeat, and read. Do this exercise a few times.

~ 5 min

Exercise 2.  Listen, repeat, and read. Do this exercise a few times.

~ 5 min

Exercise 3:

~ 15 min

Exercise 4.  Listen, repeat, and read. Do this exercise a few times.

~ 5 min

Exercise 5.  Phonetic dictation. Listen and put in the missing consonant.

~ 25 min